By Christophe Klimczak MD PhD, Petros Nihoyannopoulos MD FRCP FACC FESC
This publication bargains either skilled cardiologists and trainees alike the chance to spot and handle the commonest pitfalls encountered with echocardiology in regimen scientific perform. The ebook covers a sequence of demanding situations starting from technical problems to issues of echocardiographic interpretation with every one part providing a sequence of simulations to check the reader's knowing of the matter. The textual content is written in a hugely sensible and didactic sort in order to aid the busy health professional by way of providing the data in a succinct, 'essentials in simple terms' demeanour. The heavy use of top quality illustrations serves to make sure that the ideas defined are supported by way of real-life examples and hence without difficulty appropriate to the medical setting.
- Edited through a world expert.
- Abundant use of full-colour permits actual illustration of pictures to have the funds for unique dialogue of the concepts involved.
- Didactic procedure guarantees supply of key info in potential parts hence saving time for the busy cardiologist.
- Includes the main widespread pitfalls linked to various strategies hence making sure applicability to quite a few scientific settings and gear availability.
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Additional info for 100 Challenges in Echocardiography, 1e
During physical exercise During mitral valvuloplasty as a result of the rapid increase in the end-diastolic pressure of the PHT. The brevity of the descending slope of the E wave may make it difficult to measure the PHT. Likewise, a fusion of the E and A waves (telescoping) in less tight MS may impede measurement of the mitral slope. Atrial flutter can disrupt the deceleration slope of the mitral flow. Atrial fibrillation may be responsible for a variable PHT. In the case of short R–R intervals, the PHT is shortened.
11). The possibility of a predominantly subvalvular obstacle should be considered when the surface area measured using planimetry is greater than that calculated using Hatle’s method (see below). Cases of atrial fibrillation. In order to obtain a precise value of the MSA, it is necessary to slow down the cardiac frequency. Following percutaneous mitral valve disease, measurement errors are possible when using planimetry due to neglect of the scarcely visible limit of the open commissures and of the distorted form of the mitral orifice.
This process enables the operator to record subaortic flows integrally within the exclusively laminar zone, at the level of the vena contracta. An underestimation of the subaortic velocities is due to the Doppler sample volume being too distant from the aortic valve. This leads to an underestimation of the valve surface area calculated using the continuity equation. Bringing the Doppler sample volume too close to the aortic orifice leads to a sharp enlargement of the spectrum linked to the entry into the acceleration zone of the ejection flow.