3-D Imaging Technologies in Facial Plastic Surgery, An Issue by John Pallanch

By John Pallanch

A international pool of surgeons and researchers utilizing third-dimensional imaging for facial cosmetic surgery current themes on: photograph fusion in pre-operative making plans; using 3D imaging instruments together with stereolithographic modeling and intraoperative navigation for maxillo-mandibular and complicated orbital reconstruction; customized, 3-dimensional, intraoperative surgical publications for nasal reconstruction; the advantages and bounds of utilizing an built-in 3D digital strategy for maxillofacial surgical procedure; 3D quantity evaluation innovations and computer-aided layout and production for pre-operative fabrication of implants in head and neck reconstruction; A comparability of other new 3D imaging applied sciences in facial cosmetic surgery; three-D images within the target research of quantity augmentation together with fats augmentation and dermal fillers; evaluate of other rhinoplasty strategies by means of overlay of prior to and after 3D photos; 3D volumetric research of mixed facial lifting and volumizing (volume enhancement); 3D facial measurements and perceptions of reputation; instructing 3-D sculpting to Facial Plastic Surgeons, three-D insights on aesthetics; production of the digital sufferer for the research of facial morphology; third-dimensional video research of facial flow; 3D modeling of the habit of facial tender tissues for knowing facial cosmetic surgery interventions.

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Extra info for 3-D Imaging Technologies in Facial Plastic Surgery, An Issue of Facial Plastic Surgery Clinics - E-Book (The Clinics: Surgery)

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There are 2 basic 3D surface imaging approaches. One is laser based and the other is optics based. Laser-based Surface Imaging In its basic form, a laser scanner calculates the coordinate of each point on the surface of the target by measuring the time it takes for a projected light ray to return to a sensor. To improve efficiency, more complex patterns are projected, such as a light stripe. This technology of scanning the face with a laser is based on projecting a known pattern of light to infer an object’s topography.

Although the theory is straightforward, developing a reliable, repeatable stereo photogrammetry system is expensive because it depends on the reliability of image analysis. 27,28 For imaging the surface of human subjects, stereo photogrammetry seems to be superior to structured light and moiré fringe techniques in terms of: 1. Capture speed, which is mandatory for human subjects 2. Ability for more than 1 viewpoint to trigger simultaneously with other viewpoints, which is necessary for the structure of the face 3.

We now have ads for “3D” products throughout stores, eg, “3D whitening” in tooth care products, etc. With the inertia of large commercial success of 3D, “3D” is now mainstream. This means widespread, increasingly sophisticated 3D tools (if anything, to support the entertainment industry), better quality 3D imaging, and ultimately less expensive 3D tools with optimized user interfaces. No longer will 3D tools only be the domain of an engineer designing a car or fabricating a machine or part. Now homebuyers will be designing and decorating homes in 3D; families will have 3D home movies, and surgeons will employ a world of useful 3D tools for understanding the 3D intricacies of the anatomy of patients before or during surgery.

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