By Hassan Salih Khalilieh
It is a comparative research facing the maritime practices which prevailed within the Byzantine and Islamic worlds round the Mediterranean from 7-10 centuries C.E. and includes seven chapters. the 1st bankruptcy describes the actual and felony value of the send, computation of capability, and the significance of naming advertisement vessels. bankruptcy examines problems with possession and ownership of a vessel, the employment stipulations of the workforce, and the passengers’ prestige on board send. Carriage of shipment by means of sea and sorts of contracts, legal responsibility of the lessor, transport charges, and breach of agreement are coated in bankruptcy 3. Jettison, regular, and contribution are handled in bankruptcy 4. bankruptcy 5 treats the legislation of collision and the foundations governing the salvage of jetsam, are surveyed in bankruptcy Six. the ultimate bankruptcy explains the felony transformations among Byzantine and Islamic mercantile legislations and descriptions the rules of the ocean personal loan, chreokoinonia, and qirad.
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Extra resources for Admiralty and Maritime Laws in the Mediterranean Sea (ca. 800-1050): The Kitaab Akriyat al-Sufun vis-a-vis the Nomos Rhodion Nautikos
E. Bosworth (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1974), 63–104; F. H. van Doorninck, “The Medieval Shipwreck at Serçe Limani: An Early 11thCentury Fatimid-Byzantine Commercial Voyage,” Graeco-Arabica 4 (1991), 45–52. 75 Christides, “Raid and Trade,” 61–102.
Finally the appendix, whose legal inquiries date between the second half of the tenth and the ﬁrst half of the eleventh century, concerns itself with the calculation of freight charges, overloading, ship owner’s liability for the transport of speciﬁc goods to their destination, collision, jettison and general average. The A. S. , but rather a maritime treatise that treats mercantile and shipping matters exclusively. “On the basis of a great deal of circumstantial evidence,” Udovitch writes, “the text, as published by M.
39 As for the promulgation of the N. , its precise year is still unknown. 40 Another group of Byzantinists attribute it to the Isaurian dynasty (717–802), claiming that this compilation was adopted and instituted as an Imperial Law instead of the maritime formulation found in Justinian’s that on the eve of Islamic expansions, shipping in the Mediterranean regions was primarily controlled by the church, state, rich merchants, and middle class entrepreneurs. For instance, commercial ships of the church of Alexandria sailed east to India and Ceylon and west to Marseilles at the time when the Byzantines reigned supreme in the Mediterranean, and Mediterranean commerce was largely in Syrian and Egyptian hands.