AmIware Hardware Technology Drivers of Ambient Intelligence by Rick Harwig (auth.), Satyen Mukherjee, Ronald M. Aarts, Raf

By Rick Harwig (auth.), Satyen Mukherjee, Ronald M. Aarts, Raf Roovers, Frans Widdershoven, Martin Ouwerkerk (eds.)

Ambient Intelligence is among the new paradigms within the improvement of knowledge and verbal exchange know-how, which has attracted a lot awareness during the last years. the purpose is the to combine expertise into humans atmosphere in this sort of means that it improves their day-by-day lives by way of healthiness, creativity, and productiveness. Ambient Intelligence is a multidisciplinary inspiration, which seriously builds on a few basic breakthroughs which have been accomplished within the improvement of recent techniques over the last years. New insights in nano and micro electronics, packaging and interconnection expertise, large-area electronics, power scavenging units, instant sensors, low energy electronics and computing structures let the belief of the heaven of ambient intelligence by means of overcoming the hell of physics. in line with contributions from top technical specialists, this publication offers a couple of key issues on novel advancements, hence delivering the reader an excellent perception into the actual foundation of ambient intelligence. It additionally exhibits key study demanding situations that has to be addressed sooner or later.

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1. 1–2. During standby mode, the bitline voltages are set to VDD . 1–1. Charm protocol processor. 1. 1–2. Standard 6T SRAM cell structure. VDD is reduced to the DRV, all six transistors in the SRAM cell operate in the subthreshold region. Thus, the data retention strongly depends on the subthreshold current conduction behavior of the transistors. To reliably preserve the state of the cell, the feedback loop must be regenerative and have high stability. Regeneration requires the crosscoupled inverters to have a loop gain greater than one.

Miniaturization of mechanical functions, such as zooming and focusing, will call for new types of adaptive optics. Philips has invented a miniature camera, comprising a CMOS image sensor and a tunable lens based on electrowetting (called Fluid Focus). 2–2 illustrates various prototypes of this lens, showing the progression from a research demonstrator to a solution that lends itself to mass manufacturing. The phenomenon exploited in electro wetting lenses is the electric field dependence of the contact angle of a liquid at the walls of a container [9].

They can be flexible, and of any shape. They can be made to emit white light through the appropriate layer composition or red, green and blue pixels can be made in combination with some kind of a matrix-addressing scheme. It is also possible to make transparent light emitting devices on glass, enabling new applications, such as privacy or atmosphere providing windows. It is expected that these LED technologies will show rapid growth in special lighting markets, followed by a penetration in the general lighting market.

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