By Shih-Chii Liu, Jorg Kramer, Giacomo Indiveri, Tobias Delbruck, Rodney Douglas
Neuromorphic engineers paintings to enhance the functionality of man-made platforms in the course of the improvement of chips and platforms that approach details jointly utilizing basically analog circuits. This e-book provides the principal strategies required for the artistic and winning layout of analog VLSI circuits. The dialogue is weighted towards novel circuits that emulate average sign processing. not like such a lot circuits in advertisement or commercial purposes, those circuits function frequently within the subthreshold or vulnerable inversion area. in addition, their performance isn't restricted to linear operations, but additionally encompasses many attention-grabbing nonlinear operations just like these taking place in normal structures. themes comprise gadget physics, linear and nonlinear circuit varieties, translinear circuits, photodetectors, floating-gate units, noise research, and procedure technology.
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Additional info for Analog VLSI: Circuits and Principles
IRE. 46. 1 076. © 1958 IRE now IEEE. For silicon p-n junctions there is only a qualitative agreement between the observed behavior and the Shockley equation 2. 6. 22, because the above approximations are not completely justified; and because of surface effects at the semiconductor boundaries. Figure 2. 13compares the current-voltage 34 Chapter 2 characteristics of an ideal diode and a real diode. In semiconductors with small intrinsic carrier concentrations ni, such as silicon, the reverse diffusion current density (given by Js for reverse biases larger than approximately 4UT ) may be dominated by a superimposed reverse generation current density J g e n .
22,and 2. 7 . 26", can be expressed as Ci '" £ 1 !!... (2. 7. 30) Ci + Cd Cd Ci = = = - , I which is the incremental capacitive divider ratio as seen from the conductor side. The coupling factor '" appears as a parameter in the basic equations describing the operation of MOSFETs, where it will be called the subthreshold slope factor, and will be used extensively in this book. In the small-signal analysis of MOSFET circuits ", is assumed to be constant, but it must be kept in mind that '" varies quite strongly with applied voltage, as can be seen from Fig.
Diffusion is a term borrowed from gas dynamics. It describes the process by which a net particle flow is directed from a region of higher particle density to a region of lower particle density along the density gradient. This phenomenon is a direct consequence of the assumption of statis tical isotropic motion of the particles. The electron and hole diffusion current 21 Semiconductor Device Physics nr � ... V p n r � ... V � Vn,diff p • Vp,diff ... 7 Diffusion of (a) electrons and (b) holes. The directions of the carrier concentration gradients, carrier motion, and electrical currents are shown.