Physiology of the Heart by Arnold M. Katz MD

By Arnold M. Katz MD

Dr. Arnold Katz's the world over acclaimed vintage, Physiology of the Heart, is now in its completely revised 5th version, incorporating the newest molecular biology examine and generally exploring the scientific purposes of those findings. within the unmarried authored, professional voice that's this book's targeted power, Dr. Katz presents a entire evaluation of the physiological and biophysical foundation of cardiac functionality, starting with constitution and continuing to biochemistry, biophysics, and pathophysiology in arrhythmias, ischemia, and center failure. Emphasis is at the interrelationships of easy tactics one of the phone, cardiac muscle functionality, and the biophysics of contractile and electric habit. This variation comprises new fabric on cellphone signaling and molecular biology.

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This suggested that energy released by glycolysis is directly coupled to muscle contraction: L Glucose S lactic acid ϩ mechanical energy This attractive hypothesis, although able to explain a large body of experimental data, collapsed in 1930 when Lundsgaard discovered that muscles can contract when glycolysis is blocked with iodoacetic acid. Lundsgaard’s subsequent observation that working muscles hydrolyze phosphocreatine, a labile compound composed of creatine and phosphoric acid, and the demonstration by Eggleton and Eggleton that the decrease in phosphocreatine is proportional to the amount of work performed during muscle contraction, led to a revised hypothesis, that energy is provided for muscle contraction when phosphocreatine is broken down to creatine and inorganic phosphate (Pi): Phosphocreatine S creatine ϩ Pi ϩ mechanical energy These observations indicated that glycolysis, instead of delivering energy directly to the contractile machinery, supplies the energy needed to form phosphocreatine from creatine and Pi.

The dark meat of duck or goose breast), whereas the muscles of a snake, which strikes, and a frog, which hops, are white. qxd 8/16/10 12:58 PM Page 36 Aptara Inc 36 Part One • Structure, Biochemistry, and Biophysics to the generalizations described below. For clarity in describing how biochemical specializations meet functional needs these exceptions are not considered further. Energy Production and Utilization By Red and White Muscle Red muscle is specialized for sustained activity, during which the rate of energy utilization cannot exceed that of energy production.

Biological membranes often separate regions of different electrical potential; cardiac Purkinje fibers, for example, have a potential difference of about 90 mV across the resting plasma membrane. Changes in the magnitude, and often the polarity, of this potential difference exert forces that modify the conformations of intrinsic membrane proteins such as voltage-gated ion channels (Chapter 13). Although the absolute potential differences across the plasma membrane are small, they create enormous electrical potential gradients because they occur across a very thin surface.

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